The Effect of Instructional Methods in Teaching Speaking to Young Learners

Main Article Content

Nita Kaniadewi
Widi Sriyanto

Abstract

This study searched for empirical evidence of which instructional method, either Presentation-Practice-Production (PPP) or Task-based Learning (TBL), was more effective in teaching speaking to real beginners of young learners. The selected samples were taken by non-random sampling from Foundation II level with ten students for each class. This study, whose data was collected through an oral test, was an experimental research by using T-test at 0.05 significance level. The findings revealed that t-computation was higher than t-table (+2,11 > +2,10). It implied that the mean of PPP class was significantly higher than TBL class. The findings above led to a conclusion that the use of PPP was more effective than TBL in teaching speaking to young learners. It was also discovered that drilling activities, which occurred intensively in PPP, yet not in TBL, gave a great contribution in supporting the effectiveness of PPP in teaching speaking. Drillings were beneficial and met the characteristics of the students who belonged to the population of this study. Therefore, PPP, rather than TBL, was more recommended in teaching speaking to real beginners of young learners whose characteristics met the ones mentioned in the discussion below. However, since drillings can be very mechanical and meaningless, in order not to cause boredom, the length of time allocated for the activities should be considered carefully. Moreover, for an optimum result, drillings must always be accompanied by communicative activities.

Article Details

Section
Articles

References

Byrne, D. (1986). Teaching Oral English. London: Longman.
Harmer, J. (2007). The Practice of English Language Teaching 4th Edition. London: Pearson Education Limited.
Ismaili, M. (2013). The effectiveness of the task-based learning in developing students' speaking skills in academic settings on the EFL classroom - A study conducted at South East European University (SEEU). Paper presented at the Albania International Conference on Education.
McKay, P. (2006). Assessing Young Language Learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Munirah & Muhsin, M. A. (2015). Using Task-Based Approach in Improving the Students’ Speaking Accuracy and Fluency. Journal of Education and Human Development, 4(3), 181-190.
Nunan, D. (2004). Task-Based Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
__________. (2011). Teaching English to Young Learners. California: Anaheim University Press.
Oxford, Rebecca. (2006). Task-Based Language Teaching and Learning: An Overview. The Asian EFL Journal, 8(3), 94-121.
Richards, J. C. & Rodgers, T. S. (2014). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching – Third Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ur, P. (2012). A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Willis, D. & Willis, J. (2007). Doing Task-based Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.
Willis, J. (1996). A Framework for Task-Based Learning. London: Longman.